Job Description:

An Immunologist is a medical or biological scientist who specialises in studying the immune system, its functions, and its response to diseases and pathogens to develop treatments and preventive measures.

Job Category:
Pharmaceutical & Life Sciences

What you will do:

As an immunologist, you will be:

  • Conducting research to understand the immune system’s functions, responses, and dysfunctions
  • Diagnosing and treating immune-related disorders, allergies, and autoimmune diseases
  • Providing medical care and treatment to patients with immunological conditions
  • Developing and administering vaccines to prevent infectious diseases
  • Advising other healthcare professionals on immune-related issues
  • Teaching and mentoring medical students, residents, and fellow healthcare professionals
  • Conducting experiments and laboratory tests related to immunology
  • Contributing to the development of immunotherapies and medications
  • Participating in public health initiatives related to immunisation and disease control
  • Conducting and overseeing clinical trials for new treatments and therapies
  • Advocating for patients’ rights and needs, especially those with immune-related disorders
  • Collaborating with multidisciplinary healthcare teams and researchers on complex cases and studies


You will need:

  • knowledge in biology, medicine (if a medical doctor), biochemistry and pharmacology
  • knowledge in immunology and pathology
  • proficiency in laboratory techniques and research methodologies for conducting experiments and studies in immunology
  • knowledge in data analysis and interpretation

As well as:

Illustration of employee looking at workspace

Entry Requirements:

While there are no strict GCSE subject requirements for becoming an Immunologist, it’s beneficial to excel in science and related subjects during your GCSEs. Here’s more information:

  1. Biology: A strong understanding of biology is fundamental for Immunologists, as the field is rooted in the study of living organisms and biological processes. GCSE biology coursework provides essential knowledge of cells, genetics, and basic physiology.
  2. Chemistry: Immunology often involves complex chemical reactions and molecular interactions within the human body. A solid foundation in chemistry can be particularly helpful in understanding biochemical processes related to the immune system.
  3. Physics: Although less directly related to immunology, physics principles can be valuable for grasping certain aspects of medical equipment and technology used in the field.
  4. Mathematics: Proficiency in mathematics, especially in areas like statistics, can be beneficial when analysing data and conducting research in immunology.
  5. English: Strong communication skills, including reading and writing, are essential for effectively conveying scientific findings, publishing research papers, and collaborating with colleagues.

Remember that while these subjects can provide a helpful foundation, the most crucial educational steps toward becoming an Immunologist occur during your undergraduate and postgraduate studies in fields such as biology, biochemistry, medicine (for MDs), or immunology itself. It’s essential to research the specific admission requirements of the educational programs you intend to pursue for a career in immunology.

To become an Immunologist, you need to fulfill certain qualifications and requirements:

Educational Background

Obtain a bachelor’s degree: Start with a bachelor’s degree in a relevant field like biology, biochemistry, microbiology, or a related discipline.

Pursue advanced education: After your bachelor’s degree, pursue either a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree or a Ph.D. in immunology, biology, or a closely related field.

Medical School (for MDs)

If you choose the medical route (MD), complete medical school, which typically takes four years.

Residency and Fellowship (for MDs)

After medical school, complete a residency in internal medicine or pediatrics, followed by a fellowship in immunology or allergy and immunology. This can take several years.

Ph.D. and Postdoctoral Research (for Ph.Ds)

If you choose the Ph.D. route, complete your doctorate in immunology or a related field. Gain postdoctoral research experience to deepen your expertise in immunology.

Licensing (for MDs)

If you’re an MD, obtain a medical license to practice medicine in your jurisdiction. Licensing requirements vary by region.

Board Certification (for MDs)

Seek board certification in immunology or allergy and immunology from relevant medical boards. This certification demonstrates your expertise in the field.

Research and Publications

Conduct research in immunology, publish research papers, and contribute to the field’s knowledge base.

Working Hours and Environment:

Immunologists typically work full-time hours in clinical settings (hospitals or clinics), research laboratories, or educational institutions, with flexible hours to accommodate patient care, research, or teaching responsibilities, and often collaborate with multidisciplinary teams.

Career Path & Progression:

A career path for an Immunologist often involves education, residency or postdoc training, a fellowship, entry-level positions in research or clinical settings, progression to mid-level roles, and potential advancement to leadership positions, clinical practice (for MDs), research, teaching, and ongoing professional development.